Ambulatory Assessments Demystified: Elevating Research with ExpiWell

Ambulatory Assessments Demystified: Elevating Research with ExpiWell

Dr. Louis Tay
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In the realm of psychological and behavioral research, ambulatory assessments are redefining the data collection process. These assessments, which occur as participants go about their daily lives, offer unparalleled insights into the nuances of human behavior, emotion, and experience.

What are Ambulatory Assessments?

Ambulatory assessments are data collection methods used to gather information on an individual's behavior, physiological state, and environmental context in real time (Shiffman, Stone, & Hufford, 2008). This approach encompasses various techniques, including experience sampling methods (ESM), ecological momentary assessments (EMA), daily diaries, and ambulatory physiological monitoring.

The Use of Ambulatory Assessments

These assessments are particularly useful for capturing data that is reflective of participants' natural interactions with their environments (Trull & Ebner-Priemer, 2013). By employing ambulatory assessments, researchers can obtain a more accurate picture of everyday life, free from the artificial constraints of a lab setting.

Moreover, with Ambulatory Assessments one can better understand and characterize dynamic processes not easily done with traditional methods. The use of smartphone mobile apps and wearable sensors now allow researchers to research, assess, and intervene among individuals and clinical patients (Carpenter, Wycoff, & Trull, 2016).

Implementing Ambulatory Assessments

Implementing ambulatory assessments requires careful planning and the right tools. Researchers must consider the timing of assessments, the burden on participants, and the type of data being collected. The technology used must be reliable, non-intrusive, and capable of capturing high-quality data (Conner & Reid, 2012).

Examples Applications of Ambulatory Assessments

Ambulatory assessments can take various forms, depending on the research question, the population under study, and the specific behaviors or phenomena of interest. Here are several specific examples that could be included in a blog post to illustrate the breadth and depth of ambulatory assessments in research:

Experience Sampling Method (ESM):

Mood Tracking in Daily Life: Researchers can use ESM to track participants' mood fluctuations throughout the day. Participants receive random prompts via a smartphone app to report their current mood and context, providing insights into the natural ebb and flow of emotional states.

Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA):

Stress and Coping in the Workplace: An EMA study could involve employees receiving prompts at random times during the workday to report on their stress levels, the activities they are engaged in, and the coping strategies they are using, linking stressors to real-time reactions and coping effectiveness.

Ambulatory Physiological Monitoring:

Heart Rate Variability and Daily Interactions: Participants wear a heart rate monitor for several days to measure how their heart rate variability (HRV) is affected by social interactions, physical activities, and daily stressors.

Daily Diaries:

Sleep Quality and Next-Day Functioning: Individuals complete a daily diary each morning detailing their sleep quality and duration from the previous night, and then they report on their cognitive functioning and mood throughout the day.

Physical Activity Monitoring:

Activity Levels and Health Outcomes: Using wearable fitness trackers, researchers collect data on participants' step count, exercise intensity, and sedentary time to study correlations with health outcomes such as weight loss or cardiovascular health.

Dietary Monitoring:

Eating Patterns and Nutritional Intake: Participants photograph their meals and snacks throughout the day using their smartphones, providing researchers with real-time dietary intake information for nutritional analysis.

Substance Use Tracking:

Smoking Cessation and Triggers: Individuals trying to quit smoking use an app to log their cravings, smoking lapses, and the contexts in which they occur, aiding in the identification of triggers and the development of tailored intervention strategies.

Symptom Tracking in Chronic Illness:

Pain Management in Patients with Chronic Pain: Patients use a mobile app to record pain levels, medication use, activity levels, and pain triggers to help manage their condition and provide data for healthcare providers.

Ambulatory Cognitive Assessments:

Memory Function in Older Adults: Older adults perform cognitive tasks on their smartphones at various times during the day, assessing memory and attention in naturalistic settings to understand cognitive aging.

These examples can be used to illustrate the versatility of ambulatory assessments in a blog post, highlighting how they allow researchers to collect rich, ecologically valid data across various contexts and populations.

The Society for Ambulatory Assessments (SAA)

The Society for Ambulatory Assessment (SAA) is an international organization of researchers and practitioners dedicated to the promotion of ambulatory assessment in psychological and behavioral sciences. Ambulatory assessment refers to the use of field methods to assess the ongoing behavior, physiology, experience, and environment of humans in naturalistic settings, often through the use of technology such as smartphones or wearable devices.

Purpose and Goals: The primary aim of the SAA is to foster the development and application of ambulatory assessment methods. The society seeks to:

  1. Encourage Research and Application: Promote the use of ambulatory assessment in various fields, including psychology, medicine, and human-computer interaction.
  2. Facilitate Collaboration: Provide a platform for collaboration among scientists, clinicians, and industry professionals interested in ambulatory assessment.
  3. Disseminate Knowledge: Organize conferences, workshops, and other events to disseminate the latest research findings and methodological advances in the field.
  4. Develop Standards: Work towards the establishment of methodological standards and best practice guidelines for conducting ambulatory assessments.
  5. Support Members: Offer support to its members through resources, networking opportunities, and guidance on ambulatory assessment technologies and methodologies.

Conferences and Workshops: The SAA holds regular conferences and workshops that bring together experts in the field to share research, discuss advancements, and explore the practical applications of ambulatory assessment. These events often feature presentations on the latest technologies, analytical techniques, and study findings.

How ExpiWell Facilitates Ambulatory Assessments

ExpiWell is a platform that offers a suite of features designed for ambulatory assessments. It provides a user-friendly interface for both researchers and participants, facilitating the creation of customized surveys and the collection of real-time data. Its capabilities allow for the scheduling of prompts based on time or participant responses, ensuring a responsive and adaptive data collection process.

The Benefits of Using ExpiWell

With ExpiWell, researchers can:

  • Deploy complex survey protocols with ease.
  • Access real-time data to monitor participant responses and adherence.
  • Ensure data quality with built-in compliance features.
  • Analyze data seamlessly with integrated analysis tools.


Ambulatory assessments offer a depth of understanding that traditional methods cannot match. ExpiWell serves as the bridge between research objectives and the rich, contextual data that ambulatory assessments provide.

For those looking to deepen their understanding of human behavior as it unfolds in the real world, ExpiWell provides the perfect platform to collect, manage, and analyze ambulatory assessment data. Let ExpiWell help you implement your ambulatory assessment research today! Contact us at


  • Shiffman, S., Stone, A. A., & Hufford, M. R. (2008). Ecological momentary assessment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 1-32. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.3.022806.091415
  • Trull, T. J., & Ebner-Priemer, U. W. (2013). Ambulatory assessment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 9, 151-176. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185510
  • Conner, T. S., & Reid, K. A. (2012). Effects of intensive mobile happiness reporting in daily life. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3(5), 573-580. DOI: 10.1177/1948550611434784
  • Carpenter, R. W., Wycoff, A. M., & Trull, T. J. (2016). Ambulatory assessment: New adventures in characterizing dynamic processes. Assessment, 23(4), 414-424.

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